The semimonocoque fuselage, in addition to having vertical
reinforcements (formers), has the skin reinforced by longitudinal
members (stringers and longerons). The reinforced shell has the skin
reinforced by a complete framework of structural members.
of semimonocoque and reinforced shell constructions are shown in
Figures 1-4 and 1-5.
Structural Members. Formers, frame assemblies, and bulkheads
give cross-sectional shape, rigidity, and strength to the
fuselage. The shapes and sizes of these members vary
considerably, depending on their function and position in
the fuselage. Formers are the lightest, and they are used primarily
for fillings or skin attachments between the larger members.
assemblies are the most numerous and outstanding members