components are usually of all-metal construction and cantilever
design. Both monospar and multispar construction are commonly used.
Ribs develop the cross-sectional shape, and fairings are used to
streamline angles between these surfaces and the fuselage.
vertical stabilizer, in addition to being the base for attaching the
rudder, assists in maintaining the airplane's directional stability
in flight. On propeller-driven airplanes, the vertical stabilizer is
sometimes offset from the centerline to compensate for the torque
developed by the engine and propeller.
The horizontal stabilizer
helps to maintain stability about the airplane's lateral axis, and it
As with wings, many
variations in size, shape, and placement, as well as number of
components, are used by manufacturers in making an empennage.