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Figure 1-2. Relationship of Force, Area, and Pressure.

 
  
 
The triangle shown in Figure 1-2 is a convenient memory device for
the  force-area-pressure  formulas.
It  helps  you  recall  the  three
factors involved: F, A, and P.
Because the F is above the line in
the triangle, it also reminds you that in both formulas indicating
division, F is always divided by one of the other two factors.
Figure 1-2.
Relationship of Force, Area, and Pressure.
TRANSMISSION OF FORCE
Two  means  of  transmitting  force  are  through  solids  and  through
liquids.
Since  this  text  is  on  hydraulics,  the  emphasis  is  on
fluids.
Force transmission through solids is presented only as a
means of comparison.
Transmission of Force Through Solids.  Force applied at one point
on a solid body follows a straight line undiminished to an opposite
point on the body.  This is illustrated in Figure 1-3.
Transmission of Force Through Confined Liquids.
Applied forces
are  transmitted  through  bodies  of  confined  liquids  in  the  manner
described by Pascal's Law.
This law of physics, formulated in the
seventeenth  century  by  the  French  mathematician  Blaise  Pascal,
states:  pressure  applied  to  any  part  of  a  confined  liquid  is
transmitted without change in intensity to all parts of the liquid.
This means that wherever it is applied on the body of liquid, pressure
pushes equal force against every square inch of the interior surfaces
of the
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